Specific Learning Disability

Understanding specific learning disabilities requires recognizing that they are neurodevelopmental disorders affecting the brain's ability to receive, process, store, respond to, and communicate information. This deep dive explores various types, including dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia. It highlights their impact on learning and daily life and emphasizes the importance of early identification, support, and tailored strategies for individuals.


SLD can cause stressful situations in the lives of the children and the parents. It is important to understand the signs of SLD early and to seek help. Seeking early treatment is the key to solving the issues faced by the child and helping them have an enjoyable childhood and future. Cadabams leverages its experience in the field of mental health to bring to you dedicated care for children with SLD.

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  • Having trouble pronouncing words
  • Trouble finding the right word
  • Difficulty rhyming
  • Finding it challenging to follow directions or learn routines
  • Having difficulty controlling crayons and pencils

  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Changes in the brain from social or environmental deprivations
  • Deafness
  • Poor vision
  • Birth trauma
  • Neurologic injury in utero
  • Special teaching techniques
  • Classroom modifications
  • Using technology

  • In-Patient Services
  • Out-Patient Services
  • Rehabilitation

Upto 12%

Of India's School Going Population is fighting Specific Learning Disabilities.


children fighting specific learning disabilities in each classroom.


Patients are reintegrated to society each year by Cadabams


Professionals specializing
in treating Mental Health Disorder.

Our Professionals in Bangalore and Hyderabad

Dr. R. Priya Raghavan

MBBS, MRC-Psychiatry

Renuka B H

M.Phil (RCI) in Clinical Psychology

Ashwini Shastry

M.Phil (RCI) & M.Sc in clinical psychology

Gayathri Krotha

M. Phil (RCI) in Clinical Psychology

Aparna Rani

M.Phil (RCI) in Clinical Psychology

Gowrishri S

M.Phil (RCI) in Clinical Psychology

Manju TH

M.Sc in Clinical Psychology

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Here's everything else you need to know about Specific Learning Disability

What is a Specific Learning Disability(SLD)?

A Specific Learning Disability (SLD) is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs an individual's ability to read, write, spell, or do math despite having at least average intelligence. SLDs stem from neurological differences in how the brain processes information. They are intrinsic to the individual and can manifest as difficulties with phonological processing, mathematical reasoning, written expression, or understanding and producing language. These disabilities are not due to external factors like economic conditions, educational quality, or cultural differences. Early diagnosis and tailored interventions can significantly help individuals with SLDs achieve academic success and lead fulfilling lives.

Symptoms of SLD

Symptoms of SLD vary depending on the type of disability and can range from mild to severe. These symptoms often become evident when the demands of the affected skill exceed the individual's capacity to perform. One may notice individuals with SLD avoid tasks requiring affected skills, perform inconsistently in school, experience difficulty with time management, exhibit low self-esteem, and have behavioral problems stemming from frustration with academic tasks.

Difficulty in Reading

Individuals may struggle with phonemic awareness, word recognition, reading fluency, and comprehension. They might read below grade level, confuse similar-looking letters, and have trouble understanding the main idea of a text or making inferences.

Struggling with Writing

This can manifest as spelling, grammar, organizing ideas, and handwriting difficulties. Individuals might have trouble starting or completing written assignments, write very slowly, or avoid writing tasks altogether.

Difficulty Understanding Basic Math Concepts

Symptoms include challenges with number sense, memorizing math facts, understanding math symbols, and solving problems. Individuals may struggle to grasp basic arithmetic operations or concepts like time, measurement, and spatial relationships.

Problem in Speech and Language

This includes difficulty with understanding spoken language, poor vocabulary development, trouble following directions, and problems expressing thoughts orally. It might also involve confusion with prepositions or difficulty engaging in conversations.

Struggling with Nonverbal Skills

Symptoms can involve difficulties interpreting facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice. Individuals may have poor spatial awareness, struggle with physical coordination, and find tasks requiring fine motor skills challenging, affecting their social interactions and academic performance in subjects like art and physical education.

Causes of SLD

SLD can arise from a complex interplay of factors affecting the brain's development and ability to process information. While the exact cause of SLDs is not always identifiable, research has pointed to several contributing factors:

Family history and genes

A significant risk factor for SLDs is genetics. Children with a family history of learning disabilities are more likely to experience similar challenges, suggesting a hereditary component in the development of SLDs.

Risks before birth and shortly after

Prenatal and neonatal factors, including maternal illness, low birth weight, and oxygen deprivation, can increase the risk of SLDs. Exposure to substances like toxins, such as alcohol and drugs, during pregnancy also plays a role.

Emotional trauma

Experiencing emotional trauma, especially in early childhood, can adversely affect cognitive and emotional development, potentially leading to learning disabilities. Chronic stress and trauma can hinder attention, memory, and information processing.

Physical trauma

Physical trauma, such as head injuries, can impact brain function related to learning and memory. Injuries affecting brain areas responsible for language, reading, and mathematical reasoning can contribute to developing SLDs.

Risk Factors for SLD

Risk factors for SLD include genetic predisposition, environmental exposures such as substance or lead exposure, prenatal and neonatal complications, malnutrition, and insufficient early childhood interactions that stimulate cognitive and language development.

Environmental Factors

Exposure to harmful substances in the womb, such as alcohol, drugs, or tobacco, can adversely affect brain development. Lead exposure, whether prenatal or early childhood, can also contribute to learning disabilities by affecting cognitive and neurological functioning.

Genetic Predisposition

A family history of learning disabilities suggests a genetic component, increasing the risk of SLDs. Children with parents or siblings who have learning disabilities are more likely to experience similar challenges.

Prenatal and Neonatal Difficulties

Complications during pregnancy or birth, including premature birth, low birth weight, and lack of oxygen, can contribute to the development of SLDs by affecting brain development.


Early childhood malnutrition, particularly deficiencies in essential nutrients, can impact brain development and cognitive functions, increasing the risk of learning disabilities.

Lack of Interaction from Parents

Early childhood interactions that stimulate cognitive development are crucial. A lack of enriching interactions, such as reading, talking, and playing, can hinder language, social, and cognitive skills, potentially leading to learning difficulties.

Types of Specific Learning Disorders(SLD)

There are three prevalent SLDs, including dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia.


Dyslexia involves difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and poor spelling and decoding abilities. It affects reading comprehension and the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.


Dysgraphia affects writing abilities, making it hard to write clearly and at an appropriate speed. It can impact handwriting, spelling, and the ability to organize thoughts on paper.


Dyscalculia involves challenges with number-related concepts and affects the ability to perform arithmetic operations. It can lead to difficulties with understanding time, measurement, and spatial reasoning.

Severity Levels of SLD

The severity levels of SLD indicate how these disabilities impact an individual's academic performance and day-to-day activities.

Mild SLD

Individuals may experience some difficulties in one or two specific learning areas. Still, they can generally achieve success close to grade level with minimal interventions or accommodations, such as additional time for tasks or differentiated instruction.

Moderate SLD

These individuals face more significant challenges that affect multiple areas of learning. They require substantial accommodations and targeted interventions, such as specialized teaching strategies and possibly technology aids, to support their knowledge and help them reach modified academic expectations.

Severe SLD

Individuals with severe SLD encounter profound difficulties in learning across various domains. They need intensive, individualized support and interventions, including a modified curriculum, one-on-one tutoring, and comprehensive educational and psychological services, to assist their learning and daily functioning. Achieving grade-level expectations may be extremely challenging without significant and ongoing support.

Diagnosing SLD

Diagnosing SLD is a multifaceted process that involves gathering comprehensive information from various sources to understand the nature of an individual's learning difficulties. This process typically includes:

Initial Considerations

Early identification efforts may begin with teachers or parents noticing difficulties in specific learning areas. Screening can help identify students who may need further evaluation.

Professional Evaluation

A thorough evaluation by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, educational psychologist, psychological counsellor or neuropsychologist, is essential. This evaluation assesses cognitive, academic, and linguistic abilities, as well as emotional and behavioral functioning.

School-Based Identification

Schools often have processes in place for identifying students with learning disabilities. This may involve response to intervention frameworks, where students are provided with increasing levels of support and monitored for progress.

Academic and Psychological Testing

Comprehensive testing assesses students' intellectual capabilities, academic achievements, processing skills, and emotional and behavioral profiles. These tests help pinpoint the specific areas of difficulty.

In-Depth Evaluation

An in-depth evaluation may include a variety of specialists, such as speech and language therapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, psychiatrists and neuropsychologists, to understand the full scope of the child’s needs.

How to Find a Qualified Specialist?

Those navigating the challenges of SLDs in their children understand that securing the right support is essential. Cadabams provides a network of qualified specialists dedicated to offering guidance through diagnosis and personalized intervention strategies. Uncertainties don't have to be a barrier. Reaching out to Cadabams connects parents with experts who comprehend the needs of their children and can guide them towards a successful path.

Get to Know Your Child’s Specific Diagnosis

It involves familiarizing yourself with the nature of the disability, how it impacts learning and daily activities, and recognizing its symptoms. By consulting with educational psychologists or specialists and engaging in your own research, you can gain insights into effective strategies and interventions. This knowledge empowers parents to advocate for their child's needs, ensuring they receive the appropriate accommodations and support to academically and personally thrive.

Request Classroom Accommodations

Seek accommodations like extra time on tests or modified assignments to support your child's learning needs. Communication with educators is key to implementing these adjustments effectively.

Create an Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

An IEP outlines tailored educational goals and support strategies. Collaborate with school staff to ensure it addresses your child's unique needs, promoting their academic success.

Rehabilitation for Specific Learning Disability

Rehabilitation for Specific Learning Disabilities focuses on tailored educational strategies, skill development, and support services to enhance learning outcomes and personal growth.

Rehabilitation for Children with Specific Language learning disorders

Rehabilitation often involves speech and language therapy to improve communication skills, enhance understanding and language use, and address listening, speaking, reading, and writing difficulties. Tailored interventions focus on expanding vocabulary and improving grammar and social communication.

Rehabilitation for children with written expression impairment

Interventions include specialized tutoring focusing on the writing process, including brainstorming, organizing ideas, drafting, and revising. Occupational therapy may help improve handwriting skills, and assistive technology can offer alternative ways to express ideas.

Rehabilitation for kids who are impaired in mathematics

Mathematical interventions might include hands-on learning experiences, visual aids, and the use of technology to teach concepts. Strategies are designed to build foundational skills, enhance understanding of mathematical language, and develop problem-solving abilities.

Rehabilitation for children with reading difficulty

Reading interventions often involve phonics-based rehab programs, reading fluency training, and comprehension strategies to improve decoding skills, reading speed, and understanding of texts. Multisensory teaching methods can also be beneficial.

Rehabilitation for Specific Learning Disabilities

Rehabilitation for Specific Learning Disabilities encompasses a comprehensive approach that includes academic interventions, psychological support, and sometimes speech and occupational therapy. The goal is to address individual challenges, leverage strengths, and provide strategies for success in school and daily life. Practices such as repeated drills, personalized instruction, and assistive technology are common.

Towards a Brighter Future for SLD with Cadabams Rehab Facility

Embark on a journey towards a brighter future for those with Specific Learning Disabilities at Cadabams Rehab Facility. Our comprehensive approach combines personalized education strategies, psychological support, and innovative therapies tailored to each individual's needs. Don't let learning challenges define potential. Discover the path to success and empowerment with Cadabams. Take the first step today for a transformative experience.

If you are searching for a solution to your problem, Cadabam’s Rehabilitation Centre for SLD can help you with its team of specialized experts. We have been helping thousands of people live healthier and happier lives for 30+ years. We leverage evidence-based approaches and holistic treatment methods to help individuals effectively manage their Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD). Get in touch with us today. You can call us at +91 96111 94949

Specific Learning Disability Assessment Scale

Take a 5-minute self-assessment test to see how severe your loved one's learning disability is.

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Cadabam's has been a pioneer in mental healthcare for over 3 decades now. We have treated a diverse range of mental healthcare disorders over this period and have built dedicated infrastructure to accelerate recovery.

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