24 X 7 Helpline For Mental Health Emergencies
Bipolar Disorder: Types, Symptoms and Treatment Options

Bipolar Disorder: Types, Symptoms and Treatment Options



An Overview Of Bipolar Disorder And Its Treatments

Bipolar disorder affects approximately 46 million people worldwide and is the sixth leading cause of disability in the world. However, it is important to note that due to the lack of psychiatric infrastructure the number of cases is vastly underreported. Sadly, even though bipolar disorder affects millions of people worldwide, our society has not seemed to accept it. They are more concerned about what others will say; instead of considering mental issues like any other health ailment. Most people wave off this order by saying that it is just mood swings. Mental issues like bipolar disorders are hard to detect as it is; society’s disapproval forces people to hide their condition.

But do you know what could happen if you do not treat bipolar disorder in a timely manner? The untreated bipolar disease can put stress on your relationships, lead to substance abuse, suicide, etc. There are different types of bipolar disorder that impact individuals differently. So it is imperative to get timely treatment before the mental health turns severe. If you or your loved ones are suffering from bipolar disorder, get in touch with the team of mental health professionals at Cadabam’s. Call us at +91 96111 94949 or +91 7353226622. You can even email us at info@cadabams.org.

What is Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a group of mood disorders that involves serious mood swings between extreme mood states. The key characteristic graphs fall in between episodes of mania (high mood) and depression (low mood). They experience this for a period of a few hours to months.

An individual who suffers from bipolar disorder encounters mood swings so intense, that it starts interfering with their productivity, behavior, personal relationships, and other daily functions of life. The patterns and duration of these changes can vary from person to person, but the overall experience of the highs of mania and the lows of depression are extreme. 

Generally, a manic episode is characterized by extreme happiness and hyperactivity that leads to a rapid flow of speech. In the other extreme of a depressive mood, the person experiences sadness, feels lethargic and lacks energy in all activities, loses interest in things, feels helpless and hopeless, and is unable to enjoy normal pleasurable activities.

Bipolar Disorders: Phases, Types, & Their Symptoms

Every person is unique from the rest and portrays a different characteristic and behavior. Similarly, there are different types of bipolar disorders that affect the individuals and the symptoms of each can look different in different people.

The rate of bipolar disorder is equal in both the genders and typically, the onset of symptoms occurs around the age of 25. Before we discuss the different types and their symptoms in detail, let’s take a quick review of different phases of bipolar disorder and how one can differentiate one from another.

Phases Of Bipolar Disorder

Along with different types of bipolar personality disorder, people experience these in different stages. In each stage, patients experience different mood episodes. And, you should be able to identify the symptoms associated with each stage to get the right treatment.

Mania or Hypomania

In this phase of the disorder, you feel highly energetic, your creativity is at its peak, and you might experience little sleep or no sleep at all. In this state, you also talk rapidly and you might feel powerful and invincible.

While experiencing mania or hypomania (the less severe form of mania) you might encounter the following symptoms for weeks:

  • Reckless behavior that can lead to foolish business investments
  • Anger and irritation are common signs
  • Unable to concentrate on important things
  • Delusions and hallucinations

When you transit into the hypomania state, you feel euphoric, more productive but are still able to carry out your daily tasks without any complications. Despite the unusual good mood, the influence of hypomania can affect your relationships, career, and reputation.

Depression

During this state of mind, you might experience the following symptoms:

  • Feeling tired and sluggish
  • Low self-esteem and lack of confidence
  • Insomnia and sleeping issues
  • An abrupt change in appetite and weight
  • Memory retention power declines along with attention span
  • Severe cases can even trigger suicidal thoughts
    Mixed Mood State

    In this phase, the patients experience the symptoms of manic as well as depressed moods. They go through periods of depressed mood that is boosted by the poor judgment of manic mood and impulsive activities. This state can lead to violence towards oneself and others. Following are the symptoms of a mixed mood state:

  • Racing thoughts
  • Depressed mood
  • Anxiety
  • Agitation
  • Emotional lability
  • Aggression
  • Irritability
  • Suicide ideation.

Different Types of Mania/ Bipolar disorders

Bipolar Disorder is classified into 3 types depending on the mood episodes. The names are:

  • Bipolar 1 Disorder (Mania or a Mixed Episode)
  • Bipolar II Disorder (Hypomania and Depression)
  • Cyclothymia (Hypomania and Mild Depression)

Bipolar I Disorder

This is the classic manic-depressive form of the illness which is characterized by at least one manic or a mixed episode. In this case, your symptoms can last longer than a week, and in some cases, the symptoms are severe enough to necessitate immediate hospital care. Usually, a person with bipolar one disorder also has depressive episodes, typically lasting at least two weeks, which significantly impair daily functioning and cause distress.

The common symptoms of Bipolar I disorder (during Mania) are:

  • Inflated self-image (Grandiosity)
  • Rapid and loud speech
  • Increased energy, with hyperactivity
  • Too much or too little sleep
  • Hypersexuality
  • Substance abuse
  • A quick change of ideas or topics
  • Easily distracted

While being in a depressive mood, the individual experiences the following symptoms:

  • Feeling restless or agitated
  • Loss of energy or fatigue
  • Frequent suicidal thoughts and death
  • Loss of interest in all major activities
  • Feeling worthless or guilty

Bipolar II Disorder

In this state, you exclusively experience episodes of both hypomania and severe depression. People return to their usual function between episodes. Individuals with Bipolar II often first seek treatment because of depressive symptoms, which can be severe. They often have other co-occurring mental illnesses, such as anxiety disorder or substance use disorder.

This type is characterized by uncontrollable mood swings, from elevated mood to depressed mood. Bipolar II symptoms sound similar to Bipolar I and are diagnosed majorly in women rather than men. 21 is the average age for both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder.

The primary difference between bipolar 1 and bipolar 2 is that the Bipolar II form isn’t a milder form of Bipolar 1, but a separate diagnosis. While the manic episodes of bipolar I disorder can be severe and dangerous, individuals with bipolar II disorder can be depressed for longer periods, which can cause significant impairment.

Cyclothymia

It’s the milder form of bipolar disorder that consists of cyclical mood swings. It involves periods of low-level depression that alternates with periods of hypomania. One of the fundamental differences between bipolar 2 and cyclothymia is that this state of mind usually lasts for two years or more with frequent switching between the two moods. However, the symptoms are less severe than full-blown mania or depression. The symptoms include:

  • Euphoria (Exaggerated feeling of happiness)
  • Risky thoughts
  • Talking more than normal
  • Poor judgment
  • Thinking of suicide
  • Guilt feeling
  • Weight loss

Other Forms of Bipolar Disorders

Substance/Medication-Induced Bipolar and Related Disorder: Here, the prominent mood disturbance is characterized by expansive, irritability, or feeling elevated. This mood disturbance may occur with or without a depressive mood wherein the individual constantly feels low and has decreased interest in activities.

Bipolar and Related Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition: Here there is a persistent and prominent mood characterized by abnormal feelings of elevation, expansive and irritability. All these mood disturbances are a result of a physical condition.

Rapid Cycling: This type is a pattern of frequent, discrete episodes in bipolar. The individual might encounter four or more manic, hypomanic, depressive episodes in 1 year. It is more common in women and individuals who suffer from Bipolar II disorder. The symptoms include the following:

  • Sad mood
  • Preoccupation with failure
  • Lack of memory
  • Social isolation
  • Decreased sexual drive
  • Extreme excitement 
  • Inactivity

Mixed episodes: In a mixed state, the individual experiences a combined impact of both mania (or hypomania) and depression. The rare combination of high energy and low mood makes for a high risk of suicide. The common symptoms include:

  • Agitation and anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Fast or garbled speech
  • Inappropriate behaviour
  • Being highly extroverted, rude or suggestive
  • Irritated easily
  • Substance abuse
  • Constant sense of shame

Risks Of Untreated Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder gets worse if the condition is left untreated. Your personal, social, financial, and professional life all gets affected.  The longer you have bipolar disorder; there are more chances of following risks –

  • It is the sixth leading cause of disability in the world, leading to loss of employment
  • 30% of people with untreated bipolar disorder take the step of suicide.
  • 44% of people suffering from bipolar disorder abuse alcohol, and 56% abuse drugs.
  • It can cause a dent in your relationships leading to divorce, break-ups, legal trouble, etc.

How is Bipolar Disorder treated?

One of the most important steps of dealing with bipolar disorder is to identify which type of bipolar disorder the individual is suffering from. There are bipolar disorder different types, and thus a clear understanding of each type is essential before initiating the treatment process.

Since bipolar disorder is a chronic illness, you must continue the treatment even if you are feeling better to avoid a chance of a relapse. To prevent new episodes, bipolar related conditions, and to stay symptom-free, doctors may use a combination of the following treatment strategies:

  • Relying on psychological treatment like CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy)
  • Combining medication with other therapy sessions
  • Making a significant lifestyle change
  • Maintaining a healthy work-life balance
  • Trying out different relaxation techniques like yoga, meditation, deep breathing
  • Aerobic exercises like swimming, running, cycling, etc.
  • Keeping a regular check on your sleeping pattern

Why Cadabam’s?

The most effective treatment for bipolar disorder is a combination of medication and counseling. At Cadabam’s, the experienced team of psychiatrists has been trained in cognitive behavioral therapy, psychosocial rehabilitation, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT), and family-centric therapy. These therapies are tested and proven methods to improve the symptoms of different types of bipolar disorder. Cadabam’s have been treating bipolar for over two decades and have established a strong expertise in this realm. Moreover, the state-of-the-art facilities at the center further ensure that every patient gets the best treatment facility.

At Cadabams, our patients get modern, clean, and furnish accommodations that are equipped with essential comforts. We aim at providing holistic treatment that includes a healthy diet. The nutritious meals patients get are created by experienced dieticians. Our facility is equipped with a dining hall, kitchen, indoor games area, laundry facilities, yoga, meditation hall, badminton, and outdoor games. Additionally, patients will get access to 24×7 ambulance as well as counselor and psychiatrist support. They will also get recreation facilities like sports, TV, picnics, sports gym, etc. Call us today @ 96111 94949 to learn more about bipolar treatment options; get help from mental healthcare specialists.

FAQs 

Can bipolar go away?

While the symptoms come and go, different types of bipolar disorder generally need lifetime treatment. You cannot expect it to just go away on its own. And if the condition is left untreated, it can cause family discord, loss of employment, suicide tendency. However, with proper treatment, the symptoms can be reduced, and one can get back to normal life.

What is a person with bipolar like?

Also reckoned as manic depression, bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes severe low and high moods. Furthermore, it also impacts sleep, thinking, energy, and behavior. They can go from being extremely happy and excited to feeling very hopeless and sad. These sudden and unreliable shifts in their mood can result in a constant struggle in different areas of life.

How do you calm a bipolar person?

If you are dealing with a bipolar person, then the first thing to do is educate yourself about the issue. The more you will know, the better you will be able to help. Another important thing to consider is not to push them to change their habits; instead, support them in this endeavor. Some other things that you can do to help include –

  • Being there with them during the treatment
  • Trying to be understanding of their situation
  • Listen carefully

Do people with bipolar hear voices?

Some patients have psychotic symptoms, and not many are aware of it. These symptoms include auditory, visual hallucinations, and delusions. So people can hear voices during extreme moods, either during manic or feeling depressed.